Eric's Bookmarks

Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now

You might have trouble imagining life without your social media accounts, but virtual reality pioneer Jaron Lanier insists that we’re better off without them. In Ten Arguments for Deleting Your Social Media Accounts Right Now, Lanier, who participates in no social media, offers powerful and personal reasons for all of us to leave these dangerous online platforms.

Tags: to-read, nonfiction, social-media

Truth and Reality

Rank’s development of will psychology led him to a philosophy of the psychological, outlined in Truth and Reality. Here he explores the psychological determinants of the relationship of inner world to outer reality.

Anticipating one of the central findings of post-Freudian psychiatry, he argues that “truth” is irrelevant to the work of therapy. He contrasts the negative externalization of will, which leads to denial and guilt, with the creative power of will, tracing this conflict in both the individual and the history of human society.

Tags: to-read, otto-rank

Art and Artist: Creative Urge and Personality Development

Otto Rank, an Austrian psychoanalyst and one of Sigmund Freud's early colleagues, had a unique perspective on the artist's role in society and their psychological makeup. In his works, especially in "Art and Artist" (1932), Rank explores the psychological processes involved in creativity and the artist's struggle with artistic expression.

Rank proposed that there are three types of people concerning their approach to life and creativity:

The Average Person: This type conforms to societal norms and expectations, often suppressing their personal creative impulses to maintain social harmony and personal security.

The Neurotic: According to Rank, neurotics are individuals who feel the impulse to create or express themselves but are overwhelmed by the anxiety it causes. They may retreat from their creative impulses due to the fear of the unknown and the potential disruption to their sense of self and their societal roles.

The Artist: The third type, the artist, manages to harness their creative impulses in a way that both expresses their personal vision and communicates universally relatable truths to others. Unlike the neurotic, the artist confronts and integrates their anxieties into their work, using creativity as a form of therapy and self-realization. Artists are able to live with the tension between their individual needs and the demands of society, transforming personal conflicts into expressive and often socially accepted artistic creations.

Rank's theory highlights the artist as someone who not only produces art to satisfy personal needs but also transforms personal suffering into something that has universal appeal. This transformation is a key aspect of what Rank saw as the therapeutic value of art, both for the artist and for those who engage with the artist's work.

Understanding Rank's view helps to appreciate how he saw the artist as a pivotal figure in bridging inner psychological realities with external social expressions, contributing deeply to the cultural and emotional life of their communities.

Tags: to-read, art, artist, personality, otto-rank, creativity

Personality and the realization of creative potential

In view of this earlier exposure to Rank, it is
hard to realize that when a few years ago I turned
my attention to the problem of creativity I did so
without once thinking of the implications of Rankian theory for the work I was about to undertake.
Insofar as I thought about what psychoanalytic theory or the theories of derivative schools of psychoanalysis had to say about creativity, my thoughts
turned to Freud's theory of primary and secondary
process and his concept of sublimation, to Kris's
notions concerning regression in the service of the
ego, and to Kubie's emphasis on the role of preconscious processes in creative thought and action.
I recalled vividly Jung's ideas on the reconciliation
of the opposites: the dichotomies of consciousunconscious, rational-irrational, sensation-intuition,
thinking-feeling, extraversion-introversion, personaanima, the individual versus the collective, and the
archetypal images and the processes of individuation. And, of course, I thought of Maslow's notion
of the self-actualizing person, of Rogers' concept of
the fully functioning individual, and of Allport's
description of becoming. I was aware of the influence of all these ideas on my own thought as I
planned and undertook my research on creativity.
I even vaguely recalled Adler's concept of a creative instinct, but found not much help in that. But
not once did I consciously think of Rank's theories

Tags: otto-rank, creativity, donald-w-mackinnon

Thinking Strategically: Power Tools for Personal and Professional Advancement

Professionals today, whether scientists, engineers, entrepreneurs, or managers, need to maximize their effectiveness. Real world problems are complex and must be tackled with adequate conceptual tools. Hard work and motivation are not enough. Professionals need to think strategically in order to choose the right problem to solve, to solve it in a cost-effective way, to use resources efficiently, and to be innovative and productive. Written in a concise, accessible style, Thinking Strategically goes beyond brainstorming motivational books to provide the power tools needed to dissect problems and to find innovative solutions. These tools are based on an understanding of the power of bottlenecks, paradox, scale and perspective constraints, and feedback as leverage points for getting a grip on the problem. The result is a practical book for managers and other professionals about the strategic use of effort that can lead to astonishing levels of productivity.

Tags: to-read, problem-solving, PFQ, problem-finding, PSQ

The Turbulent Years: A History of the American Worker, 1933-1940

Tags: to-read, labor-history

Contents hide (Top) Overview Reception References Further reading External links The Making of the English Working Class

Tags: to-read, labor-history

Texas Rangers have a history of ‘good, young players’ like Wyatt Langford

“There is going to be a learning curve,” he said. “I hope he kills it. But you’ve got to go through that. You’ve got to experience it. It’s a mental grind.”

“Nothing prepares you for playing in this league,” he said. “You have to stick to your process. Use the resources around you and don’t let yourself get distracted. It’s not about how much you fail. It’s about succeeding a little more each time. What you are good at, do that more.”

“Occasionally, you run into these really advanced players that carry themselves in a nearly perfect way,” Young said. “They know they belong. They know they have big goals. They know they haven’t arrived yet. But they know they can compete here. Those are the biggest similarities between them.”

Tags: baseball-quotes, inspiration, wyatt-langford

Mistaken Ancestry: The Jacquard and the Computer

Mistaken Ancestry: The Jacquard and the Computer
Davis, Martin ; Davis, Virginia
Textile : the journal of cloth and culture, 2005-01, Vol.3 (1), p.76-87

Tags: jacquard, computing, martin-and-virginia-davis

Remembering Martin and Virginia Davis

Authors of Mistaken Ancestry

Tags: martin-and-virginia-davis

Revisiting the jacquard loom: threads of history and current patterns in HCI

In the recent developments of human computer interaction, one central challenge has been to find and to explore alternatives to the legacy of the desktop computer paradigm for interaction design. To investigate this issue further we have conducted an analysis on a fascinating piece of machinery often referred to as one of the predecessors of the modern day computer, the Jacquard loom. In analysing the Jacquard loom we look at qualities in design and interaction from some different perspectives: how historical tools, crafts, and practices can inform interaction design, the role of physicality, materiality, and full-body interaction in order to rethink some current conceptions of interaction and design of computational devices.

Tags: jacquard, computing

DR. BILLINGS SELECTED: Named for Superintendent of the New-York Public Library. NOW WITH PENNSYLVANIA UNIVERSITY Regarded as an Excellent Selection for the Position -- His Career in the Army and Fame as a Bibliographer.

Tags: billings, nyt, 1896

The development of punch card tabulation in the Bureau of the Census (1965)

- 4 matching terms
...THE ORIGINATORS OF THE SYSTEM 31 7 a way of doing this job, something on the principle of the Jacquard; loom,? whereby holes in a card regulate the pattern to be woven.” The seed fell on good ground. His companion was a talented young engineer in the office who first convinced himself that the idea was practicable and then that Billings had no desire to claim or use it....

...I have since received a letter from the daughter of Dr. Billings, Mrs. K. B. Wilson, in which she writes “I do not remember hearing of Father's remarks to Herman Hollerith about these machines (the Jacquard; loom] being applied to census tabula- tions, but I do remember the first little wooden model which Herman Hollerith brought to our library many evenings while they were puzzling their brains over its adaptation.”...

...That the data collected by the census for each living person, or, in systems of death registration, for each decedent, might be recorded on a single card or slip by punching small holes in different parts of it, and that these cards might then be assorted and counted by mechanical means according to any selected groupings of these perforations, was first suggested by Dr. Billings in 1880. (Italics added.) with me. ? No reference is made in any of the available early (pre-1890) records to the Jacquard; loom as a prece- dent for the use of punched cards in the operation of machinery; but in a lecture given at the University of Pennsylvania in 1896, as recorded in a paper on file in the New York Public Library, Dr. Billings said "My original idea was to use a punched slip of paper as a guide to rods and labors (levers?), which would operate on the principle of the Jacquard; loom, but Mr. Hollerith has made use of the power of electricity." This indicates that Dr. Billings not only had in mind the general problem of machine tabulation (what it should do), but had given some thought to the mechanics of a possible solution. • Reported to the writer by James L....

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, billings

Herman hollerith: data processing pioneer

eing 19 years of age and a bachelor when he arrived in Washington to begin his new job, Hollerith became active in Georgetown social circles. He met Dr. John Shaw Billings at the Billings home one Sunday evening in 1880 through a supper invitation from Billings’ daughter. Although not trained as such, Billings was an cstablishcd expert in analyzing vital statistics, and the Census Bureau had appointed him Director of Vital Statistics for the 1880 census.2 That first encounter was the occlision for the famous but, ambiguously interpreted Billings-to-Hollerith transfer of the idea for a punched card machine to tabulate U. S. Census data. Interpreta- tions of Billings’ influence vary from “suggested the need for” to “suggested using cards with the description of the individual shown by notches in the edge of the card and a device something like a type distributing ma- chine.”

The material published in this sketch is extracted and edited from John Blodgett’s thesis presented in partial fulfillment of the Degree of Master of Science in Information Science at Drexel Insti-tute of Technology School of Lihrary Science, Phila., Pa., June, 1968. The original 234 pp. typescript is available on loan from the Drexel Library. Blodgett’s work began as a term paper and grew into a thesis because he gained access to hitherto withheld Hollerith family resourccs and was diligent enough to tap publicly available resources not previously consulted--to learn more of Hollerith’s personal story and to elucidate the controversial record of John Shaw Billing’s part in the development of the first punched card sorter.

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, billings, john-blodgett, thesis

Chapter 8. Billings, Hollerith, and the Census

The Computer from Pascal to von Neumann, 1993, pp. 65-71 (7 pages)

While the returns of the Tenth (1880) Census were being tabu-
lated at Washington, Billings was walking with a companion
through the office in which h ~ ~ n d r e d sof clerks were engaged in
laboriously transferring items of information from the schedules
to the record sheets by the slow and heartbreaking method of
hand tallying. As they were watching the clerks he said to his
companion, "There ought to be some lnechanical way of doing
this job, something on the principle of the Jacquard loom, whereby
lloles in a card regulate the pattern to be woven." The seed fell
on good ground. His companion was a talented young engineer in
the office who first convinced himself that the idea was practicable
and then that Billings had no desire to claim or use it.3

One Sunday evening at Dr. Billings' tea table, he said to me
there ought to be a machine for doing the purely mechanical
work of tabulating population and similar statistics. We talked
the matter over and I remember. . . h e thought of using cards
with the description of the individual shown by notches punched
in the edge of the card. . . . After studying the problem I went
back to Dr. Billings and said that I thought I could work out a
solution for the problem and asked him if he would go in with
me. The Doctor said h e was not interested any further than to
see some solution of the problem worked
In reading over various speeches and papers by Billings on the
subject it seems to the author clear that Hollerith was the real
implementor of Billings' basic idea. Dr. Raymond Pearl, who was
for many years one of the world leaders in biology and biostatistics
and who was professor of biology and public hygiene at Johns
Hopkins, analyzed the situation in 1938 and concluded that "In
all essentials the case seems clear. Billings was the originator, the
discoverer, who contributed that which lies at the core of every
scientific discovery, namely, an original idea that proved in the trial
to be sound and good; Hollerith built a machine that implemented
the idea in practical performance, the accomplishment here, as
always of the successful inventor."
It is difficult to say more about the allocation of credit than Pearl
did. We will have occasion to see other examples of the difficulties
of allocating credit among men all of whom are deeply immersed
in a common project. Let us then agree with Pearl that Billings had
the basic idea and that Hollerith implemented it.
More importantly let us consider what the system was and what
use was made of it. Hollerith, proceeding on Billings' suggestions,
used a system of holes in a punch card to represent various charac-
teristics such as male or female, black or white, native or foreign-
born, age, etc. H e first designed his system using a continuous
roll of paper instead of individual cards. The card or roll of paper
then ran under a set of contact brushes which completed an elec-
trical circuit if and only if a hole was present. The completed
circuits activated counters which advanced one position for each
'Truesdell, p. 31. Truesdell, p. 33.

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, billings


Then came the
census of 1880. As that vast process went on, month after month, entirely
by hand, Billings at some point recalled a prototype device that might, with
adaptation, meet the needs of tabulating census results. In a conversation with
a young engineer, Herman Hollerith, Billings said ". . there ought to be
some mechanical way of doing this job, something on the principle of the
Jacquard loom, whereby holes in a card regulate the pattern to be

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, census, tabulation

Origins of IBM (page 11)

Entrepreneurial Setbacks
Hollerith: Inventor and Entrepreneur 11
Shortly before filing his first patent application in 1884, Hollerith
requested a loan from his sister's husband to finance the development
of experimental equipment. It was not the first time the
two men had considered joint business opportunities. Their previous
discussions had involved possible improvements in silk-weaving
equipment used in his brother-in-law's business.

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, brother-in-law

Social Science Micro ReviewVolume 2, Issue 4

Perforations to allow elec-trical contacts was not a new idea: the automatictelegraph, for example, operated similarly. Whatwas new was the coding of the data and the useof the contact for counting.Hollerith soon realized that the continuousstrips were impractical, since tabulating somespecific group required passing through a greatdeal of paper. (This is the same problem we havewith non-random access devices like magnetictape today.) He then struck on the idea of usingcards rather than continuous rolls of paper. It isnot clear where he got this idea and he neverclaimed to have invented the data card which eventoday bears his name. One anecdote suggests heobserved a railroad conductor punching pas-sengers’ profiles on a ticket. Indeed, among hispersonal effects was found a conductor’s punchstamped with a patent date of July 20, 1880.Another possibility is that he knew about theJacquard loom, since his brother-in-law and finan-cial backer was in the textile business. This de-vice, invented by a Frenchman, Joseph Marie Jac-quard, revolutionized the textile industry at thestart of the nineteenth century. It comprised a se-ries of cards with holes punched in them by whichweavers could pre-select warp threads to beraised or lowered, thereby creating intricate andrepeatable patterns. Simply, they could &dquo;pro-gram&dquo; the weaving process. Charles Babbage(1792-1871), considered by some the father ofmodern computing, also borrowed this notion ofthe Jacquard loom as the mechanism to inputquantities and instructions into his famous Ana-lytic Engine (Evans, 1981; Goldstine, 1972; at SAGE Publications on December 9, 2012ssc.sagepub.comDownloaded from 203Randell, 1975). In any event, the Hollerith Cardand Tabulating Machine caught on both in theUnited States and in Europe.The Hollerith System not only permanently af-fected the manner in which work was done; it alsoset the stage for some permanent changes in thenature of the work force. About thirty years earli-er Christopher Latham Sholes had invented thefirst workable writing machine. Initially, it wasused primarily by men for the &dquo;female mind hadbeen considered too flighty to master typing andthe female body too frail to operate heavymachines&dquo; (Austrian, 1982, pp. 70-71).

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, census, tabulation

Biographical Sketch of Herman Hollerith

When asked how he first had the idea of a census machine he would reply "chicken
salad" and then explain. When he first came to Washington he joined a boat club and
often rowed on the Potomac River. The club once had an evening entertainment at
which one of Dr. Billings' daughters, seeing father enjoying the chicken salad, invited
him to come to supper with them to have some of her mother's salad. It was at this
supper that Dr. Billings suggested the need for a machine to do the purely mechanical
work of tabulating population and similar statistics. Father talked the matter over
with Dr. Billings, who suggested using cards with the description of the individual
shown by notches in the edge of the card and a device something like a type-distributing
machine. Father went to Mr. Leland, who was in charge of the Population Division of
the Census Office, and asked to be taken on as a clerk to learn the nature of the job.
After studying the problem, father told Dr. Billings "to go in with him," but he was not
interested; his only wish was to see the problem solved

Tags: jacquard, hollerith, MIT, virginia-hollerith

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About Eric

I'm an award-winning artist who's been innovating in Web3 since 2019. Prior to that I was a program manager at Twitter and consultant at Google, where I specialized in operationalizing service design and customer experience. Read more